Nursing Care Plan for Decreased Cardiac Output
NANDA Definition : Inadequate blood pumped by the heart to meet metabolic demands of the body
Decreased Cardiac Output Causes :
The common causes/reasons behind this medical condition are hypertension, myocardial infarction, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary disease, cardiomyopathy, fluid overload, drug effects, electrolyte imbalance and decreased fluid volume. Geriatric patients are at a high risk of suffering from decrease cardiac output due to the reduced compliance of ventricles which results from aging.
Decreased Cardiac Output Symptoms :
The symptoms of this medical conditions could be electrocardiogram changes, arrhythimias, variations in haemodynamic parameters, tachypnea, orthopnea, dyspnea, frothy sputum, abnormal arterial blood gases, edema, weight gain, decreased urine output, dizziness, syncope, restlessness, anxiety, fatigue, weakness, cold clammy skin, decreased peripheral pulses, change in mental status, confusion, pulsus alternans, angina, etc. Decreased cardiac output and blood pressure are interrelated, since the decrease in cardiac output results into low blood pressure.
NOC Outcomes (Nursing Outcomes Classification)
Suggested NOC Labels
- Cardiac Pump Effectiveness
- Circulatory Status
- Tissue Perfusion: Abdominal Organs
- Tissue Perfusion: Peripheral
- Vital Signs Status
- Demonstrates adequate cardiac output as evidenced by blood pressure and pulse rate and rhythm within normal parameters for client; strong peripheral pulses; and an ability to tolerate activity without symptoms of dyspnea, syncope, or chest pain
- Remains free of side effects from the medications used to achieve adequate cardiac output
- Explains actions and precautions to take for cardiac disease
Suggested NIC Labels
- Cardiac Care: Acute
- Circulatory Care
Nursing Interventions for Decreased Cardiac Output
- Observe for chest pain or discomfort; location of records, radiation, severity, quality, duration, associated with manifestations such as nausea, and precipitation and relieving factors. Chest pains / discomfort generally indicate inadequate blood supply to the heart, which may compromise cardiac output. Clients with heart failure may continue to experience chest pain with angina or can reinfarct.
- Listen to heart sounds, note rate, rhythm, presence of S3, S4, and lung sounds. New Beginnings rhythm racing tachycardia, and fine crackles in lung bases may indicate the occurrence of heart failure. If the client develop pulmonary edema, there will be rough crackles on inspiration and severe dyspnea.
- Look for the confusion, anxiety, restlessness, dizziness. Central nervous system disorders can be recorded with decreased cardiac output.
- If the chest pain is present, which has become the client lying down, monitor heart rhythms, give oxygen, running a strip, to treat pain, and inform your doctor. This could improve the delivery of oxygen to the coronary arteries and improve the prognosis of the client.
- Place on cardiac monitor; monitor for dysrhythmias, especially atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation is common in heart failure.